Standard Oil Company Sources Background. In the s a new industry emerged when refiners discovered that refined petroleum which up until that point had been bought chiefly for its supposed medicinal properties made an ideal fuel for lamps. It would not become important for fueling engines until the twentieth century. Production boomed; wells sprang up as large oil fields were discovered in Pennsylvania and the Midwest; and hundreds of small firms sprouted.
The Reagan Administration Big Business: During this period, the movement of the production of goods out of small shops and mills and into factories increased tremendously.
In almost every industry, the number of factory workers grew, and bymanufacturing plants with over 1, employees — something unheard of 30 years earlier — were commonplace.
Standard Oil Co. Inc. was an American oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company. Established in by John D. Rockefeller and Henry Flagler as a corporation in Ohio, it was the largest oil refinery in the world of its time. Its history as one of the world's first and largest multinational corporations ended in , when the United States Supreme Court, in a landmark case. John Davison Rockefeller Sr. (July 8, – May 23, ) was an American oil industry business magnate, industrialist, and philanthropist. He is widely considered the wealthiest American of all time, and the richest person in modern history.. Rockefeller was born into a large family in upstate New York and was shaped by his con man father and religious mother. John D. Rockefeller created Standard Oil of Ohio in , and the company quickly monopolized oil refining and transportation in the United States. Rockefeller received significant rebates from the railroads and made his own oil barrels, built pipelines and oil storage facilities, and bought tank cars to .
Big business also meant consolidation; entire industries were controlled by a handful of companies as competition led to new forms of business organization.
The steel and oil industries are good examples of this trend. Andrew Carnegie and the steel industry. With the introduction of such new technology as the Bessemer converter and the open hearth process, the amount of steel produced in the United States went from 77, tons in to over 10 million tons in The bulk of the production at the turn of the century was in the hands of a single company, Carnegie Steel, founded by Scottish immigrant and railroad entrepreneur Andrew Carnegie.
While acquiring other steel companies that were unable to compete against his highly efficient operations, Carnegie also bought iron ore deposits as well as steamships and railroad cars, which were used to ship ore to his plants and goods to his customers. This concept of controlling the manufacture of a product from the raw material stage to the sale of the finished product is known as vertical integration.
Carnegie sold his company to a group of investors led by J. Out of that sale came the United States Steel Corporation, the largest company in the world at that time, controlling subsidiaries and employing more thanpeople.
Carnegie was also a philosopher of the new industrial age. To Carnegie, the issue was not the concentration of wealth in the hands of a few, but how those few used their wealth.
Carnegie strongly believed that the purpose of philanthropy was to enable people to help themselves, and he used his immense fortune to support universities, libraries, hospitals, and similar projects throughout the country.
Rockefeller and the oil industry. Rockefeller created Standard Oil of Ohio inand the company quickly monopolized oil refining and transportation in the United States.
Rockefeller received significant rebates from the railroads and made his own oil barrels, built pipelines and oil storage facilities, and bought tank cars to reduce expenses. These methods of vertical integration allowed Standard Oil to cut prices and drive competitors out of business.
The company also led the way in horizontal integration, controlling businesses in the same industry. InRockefeller formed the Standard Oil Trust, which controlled upward of 95 percent of the refining capacity in the United States.
In a trust, stockholders give up their stock and the control of their respective companies to a board of trustees in return for trust certificates, which pay higher dividends.
Growth in the number of trusts led Congress to take action against them. Eighteen lawsuits were filed under the statute between andfour of these against labor unions. Nevertheless, as a result of the antitrust legislation, the Ohio Supreme Court dissolved the Standard Oil Trust in The new entity was a holding company a corporation owning a controlling share of the stock in other firmsand this new type of combination continued to exercise a monopoly over the oil industry.
New forms of business organization were not unique to steel and oil, though. Gustavus Swift, for instance, established meat packing and provisioning as a vertical integration by purchasing cattle, refrigerated railroad cars and warehouses, and a fleet of wagons to deliver beef to retail butchers.
Similarly, other industries, such as sugar refining, followed Rockefeller's example and formed trusts.Standard Oil Company John D. Rockefeller's company, formed in , which came to symbolize the trusts and monopolies of the Gilded Age. By this company controlled 95% . APUSH goal 5.
APUSH goal 5. STUDY. PLAY. The Interstate Commerce Act Standard Oil Company B) Northern Pacific Railroad C) American Tobacco Company D) Pullman Company E) US Steel Corporation.
E. were partners in the creation of the US Steel Company C) flouted their wealth D) were widely beloved by the public as self-made men.
United States, U.S. 1 (), was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States found Standard Oil Co.
of New Jersey guilty of monopolizing the petroleum industry through a series of abusive and anticompetitive actions. The Court's remedy was to divide Standard Oil into several geographically separate and eventually competing firms.
home / study / business / economics / economics questions and answers / Contrast The Outcomes Of The Standard Oil And U.S. Steel Cases. What Was The Main Antitrust What Was The Main Antitrust Question: Contrast the outcomes of the Standard Oil and U.S. Steel cases. John D. Rockefeller created Standard Oil of Ohio in , and the company quickly monopolized oil refining and transportation in the United States.
Rockefeller received significant rebates from the railroads and made his own oil barrels, built pipelines and oil storage facilities, and bought tank cars to . John Davison Rockefeller (July 8, - May 23, ) was the guiding force behind the creation and development of the Standard Oil Company, which grew to dominate the oil industry and became one of the first big trusts in the United States, thus engendering much controversy and opposition regarding its business practices and form of organization.