Turning high fashion into politics: Henry Louis Gates Jr.
Du Bois — Full name William Edward Burghardt Du Bois American essayist, journalist, historian, novelist, biographer, poet, playwright, nonfiction writer, speech writer, critic, and autobiographer. The following entry provides an overview of Du Bois's career. Du Bois Criticism Volume 2. Du Bois was a major force in twentieth-century society who helped define African-American social and political causes in the United States.
Alternately considered a leader and an outcast, Du Bois espoused controversial opinions about race and politics and was regarded by many as a prophet. He is widely remembered for his conflict with Booker T. Washington over the role of blacks in American society—an issue that he treated at length in the essays collected in The Souls of Black Folk A writer of important works in many genres, Du Bois is particularly known for his pioneering role in the study of black history.
According to Herbert Aptheker, however, Du Bois was above all a "history maker," and his works and ideas continue to attract attention and generate controversy.
Class and race distinctions were negligible in the small town of 5, where Du Bois's family was part of a community of fifty blacks. When his mother died soon after his high school graduation, some residents of the town gave Du Bois a scholarship on condition that he attend Fisk University, a southern school founded for the children of emancipated slaves.
Du Bois accepted the scholarship and in traveled to Fisk in Nashville, Tennessee—his first journey to the southern United States. Yet he was "deliriously happy" at Fisk, where he met students of his own race, excelled at his studies, and during summers taught young blacks who lived in destitute rural areas of Tennessee.
After graduating with honors from Fisk, Du Bois entered Harvard in There he met several professors who would provide lifelong inspiration, particularly William James, who became a mentor and friend.
After receiving a bachelor's degree, Du Bois studied for two years at the University of Berlin. In he received his doctorate from Harvard—the first black American to do so—and published his dissertation The Suppression of the African Slave-Trade to the United States of America, — Du Bois's efforts at finding a teaching position, however, proved frustrating.
The University of Pennsylvania, for instance, commissioned Du Bois to do a sociological study of the city's black population but did not offer him a faculty position.
Du Bois eventually found a position at Atlanta University, where he taught from to and to In Du Bois formed the Niagara Movement, the first black protest movement of the twentieth century.
From to Du Bois served as the organization's director of publicity and research, and as editor of Crisis, the official publication of the NAACP, which became one of the most prominent journals directed at a black audience.
Du Bois contributed editorials condemning lynching and disenfranchisement, and his discussion of arts and letters in Crisis has been credited as a catalyst for the Harlem Renaissance literary movement.
Du Bois's popularity as a leader of black America began to decline in with the publication of the editorial "Close Ranks," which urged support for American involvement in World War I, and his conflict with Marcus Garvey, the popular Jamaican leader of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and "back-to-Africa" movement.
He was removed from the organization twice for ideological differences, once after opposing the NAACP's idea of integration, and later for supporting Progressive Party candidate Henry Wallace for president in while the NAACP's executive secretary unofficially campaigned for Harry Truman.
In Du Bois was indicted as an unregistered "agent of a foreign principal" because of his involvement in the "subversive" Peace Information Center, an organization that sought to inform Americans about international events and to abolish the atomic bomb.
Although Du Bois was acquitted, his passport remained in the custody of the United States government. He died at the age of ninety-five in Accra, Ghana. Major Works Du Bois's works spread across a wide range of genres and subjects including history, sociology, fiction, biography, and autobiography.
His most celebrated work, The Souls of Black Folk, is a collection of fourteen essays that comment on the state of blacks in America. Washington and Others," Du Bois praised Washington for preaching "Thrift, Patience, and Industrial Training," but condemned his apologies to those in power, maintaining that Washington "does not rightly value the privilege and duty of voting, belittles the emasculating effects of caste distinctions and opposes the higher training of our brighter minds.
Commissioned by the University of Pennsylvania, the study includes data gathered from approximately 5, interviews and pioneered the scholarly study of black Americans. Du Bois's historical works include The Gift of Black Folkwhich examines the contributions blacks have made to civilization; Black Reconstructiona revisionist interpretation that employs a Marxist perspective and focuses on the role blacks played in Reconstruction; and Black Folk, Then and Nowin which Du Bois outlined the history of blacks in Africa and America.
In addition to his nonfiction, Du Bois also published five novels during his career. The Quest of the Silver Fleece centers on a young black man who, after gaining some education, travels North, where he becomes involved in politics and then returns to the South to further the struggle of blacks for education and a better life.
Dark Princess, published inconcerns a young black man who, embittered by racism, leaves America for Europe, where he becomes involved in politics and a plot against colonialism.
The trilogy centers on the life of a black man who strives to serve his race as a teacher. Though not gifted intellectually, the protagonist is honorable and through his story, Du Bois dramatizes the major events of black history in America and the culture of the American South. Capitalism is depicted in a negative fashion in the novels whereas socialism is portrayed in a positive light.
Critical Reception Much of the commentary on Du Bois has centered on his controversial political views, particularly his turn toward Communism and support for Stalinism.
His fiction, for example, has been largely ignored. Nevertheless, many of Du Bois's works are considered ground-breaking.An analysis of marcus garvey and web dubois american ideals of civilization Tubolar Pré-Moldados» Outros» An analysis of marcus garvey and web dubois american ideals of civilization · The Idea of Decline A literary analysis of black cat by edgar .
Marcus Garvey - "The True Solution of the Negro Problem" () A West Indian black nationalist who rejected integrationist strategy and ideals.
He repudiated American cultural ideals and promoted his "Back to Africa" plans.
Tony Martin's Marcus Garvey, Hero: A First Biography () and Race First: The Ideological and Organizational Struggle of Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association (), along with Theodore Vincent's Black Power and the Garvey Movement () are much more positive about Garvey and his influence.
Vincent provides some valuable information about later groups that . The Study of the Negro Problems written by W.E.B. DuBois is presented here at ashio-midori.com with various external links to relevant source material and with annotations.
Dr. Robert W. Williams created this portal site on William Edward Burghardt Du Bois, the . DARKWATER Introduction BY R. L’ H EU R EU X L EW I S D arkwater: Voices from within the Veil is rarely listed among Du Bois’s critical works in the world of sociology, history, or Africana studies.
Marcus Garvey and W.E.B. Du Bois Impact the Fight for Racial Equality - Marcus Garvey and W.E.B. Du Bois Impact the Fight for Racial Equality The beginning of the early twentieth century saw the rise of two important men into the realm of black pride and the start of what would later become the movement towards civil rights.