It has become especially contentious and violent in recent years. The conflict itself is rooted in the primary question of whether the Palestinian people should be allowed to form their own independent country and government in an area that is currently part of the nation of Israel.
Es Skhul cave Between 2. The oldest evidence of early humans in the territory of modern Israel, dating to 1.
Other groups include 1. The oldest fossils of anatomically modern humans found outside Africa are the Skhul and Qafzeh hominidswho lived in northern Israelyears ago. Early Israelites See also: While alternative translations exist, the majority of biblical archaeologists translate a set of hieroglyphs as "Israel," representing the first instance of the name in the historical record.
Dever sees this "Israel" in the central highlands as a cultural and probably political entity, more an ethnic group rather than an organized state.
This evolved into the Phoenician alphabet from which all modern alphabetical writing systems are descended. The Paleo-Hebrew alphabet was one of the first to develop and evidence of its use exists from about BCE  see the Gezer calendarthe language spoken was probably Biblical Hebrew.
Monotheismthe belief in a single all-powerful law-giving God is thought to have evolved among the Hebrew speakers gradually, over the next few centuries, from a number of separate cults,  leading to the first versions of the religion now known as Judaism.
The Bible states that King David founded a dynasty of kings and that his son Solomon built a temple. Standard Biblical chronology suggests that around BCE, following the death of Solomon, the kingdom split into a southern Kingdom of Judah and a northern Kingdom of Israel.
Jehuson of Omri, is referenced by Assyrian records now in the British Museum. The Philistine kingdom was also destroyed. The Assyrians sent most of the population of the northern Israelite kingdom into exilethus creating the " Lost Tribes of Israel ". The Samaritans claim to be descended from survivors of the Assyrian conquest.
Assyrian records say he levelled 46 walled cities and besieged Jerusalemleaving after receiving extensive tribute.
The books are known as Deuteronomist and considered to be a major key step in the emergence of Monotheism in Judah. They were written at a time that Assyria was weakened by the emergence of Babylon and may be a committing to text of pre-writing verbal traditions.
The defeat was also recorded by the Babylonians   see the Babylonian Chronicles. The exiled Jews may have been restricted to the elite. Arab and Jewish sources show that the Rosh Galut continued to exist in what is now Iraq for another 1, years, ending in the eleventh century.
Cyrus issued a proclamation granting subjugated nations including the people of Judah religious freedom for the original text see the Cyrus Cylinder.
According to the Hebrew Bible 50, Judeans, led by Zerubabelreturned to Judah and rebuilt the temple. Modern scholars believe that the final Hebrew versions of the Torah and Books of Kings date from this periodthat the returning Israelites adopted an Aramaic script also known as the Ashuri alphabetwhich they brought back from Babylon; this is the current Hebrew script.Earlier in the day, at p.m., David Ben-Gurion proclaimed the creation of the State of Israel and became its first prime minister.
Longtime advocate of Zionism in Britain Chaim Weizmann () became Israel's first president.
On May 15, the United States recognized the State of Israel and the Soviet Union soon followed suit. The Kingdom of Israel occupied that part of the land on the Mediterranean Sea known as the Levant which corresponds roughly to the State of Israel of modern times.
The region was known, historically, as part of Canaan, as Phoenicia, as Palestine, Yehud Medinata, Judea and, after the Romans destroyed the region in CE, as Syria -Palaestina. Zionism, Jewish nationalist movement that has had as its goal the creation and support of a Jewish national state in Palestine, the ancient homeland of the Jews (Hebrew: Eretz Yisraʾel, “the Land of Israel”).
History of Israel; Ancient Israel and Judah; Natufian culture; Prehistory; Canaan; Israelites; United monarchy; Northern Kingdom; Kingdom of Judah; Babylonian rule; Second Temple period ( BCE–70 CE); Persian rule.
Modern Israel is roughly located on the site of the ancient kingdoms of Israel and ashio-midori.com area (also known as Land of Israel and as Palestine) is the birthplace of the Hebrew language, the place where the Hebrew Bible was composed and the birthplace of Judaism and ashio-midori.com contains sites sacred to Judaism, Christianity, Islam, .
Country Overview. Positioned on the Atlantic Ocean at the westernmost point of the Sahel, Senegal surrounds its much smaller neighbor, .