They also ran the government. In addition to the cops, Great Southern maintained a private armed security force to maintain "labor discipline. Company gunmen and the SPLL assaulted union members, evicted them from company housing, burned private homes, kidnapped, and tortured organizers. Finally, to suppress the union and end interracial cooperation, they formed an armed posse of more than men, attacked the union hall, and shot to death four union leaders.
Board of Educationwhich outlawed segregated education, or the Montgomery Bus Boycott and culminated in the late s or early s.
Despite the fact that they were not always united around strategy and tactics and drew members from different classes and backgrounds, the movement nevertheless cohered around the aim of eliminating the system of Jim Crow segregation and the reform of some of the worst aspects of racism in American institutions and life.
Much of our memory of the Civil Rights Movement of the s and s is embodied in dramatic photographs, newsreels, and recorded speeches, which America encountered in daily papers and the nightly news.
As the movement rolled across the nation, Americans absorbed images of hopeful, disciplined, and dedicated young people shaping their destinies. African Americans fought back with direct action protests and keen political organizing, such as voter registration drives and the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party.
The images are alternately angering and inspiring, powerful, iconic even. However, by themselves they cannot tell the history of the Civil Rights Movement.
They need to be contextualized. The drama of the mid-twentieth century emerged on a foundation of earlier struggles. Two are particularly notable: Parker for his white supremacist and anti-union views and then defeat senators who voted for confirmation, and a skillful effort to lobby Congress and the Roosevelt administration to pass a federal anti-lynching law.
Southern senators filibustered, but they could not prevent the formation of a national consensus against lynching; by the number of lynchings declined steeply. Other organizations, such as the left-wing National Negro Congress, fought lynching, too, but the NAACP emerged from the campaign as the most influential civil rights organization in national politics and maintained that position through the mids.
Charles Hamilton Houston The campaign for desegregated education was part of a larger struggle to reshape the contours of America—in terms of race, but also in the ways political and economic power is exercised in this country.
Plans for the legal campaign that culminated with Brown were sketched in by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
Charles Hamilton Houstonthe black attorney most responsible for developing the legal theory underpinning Brown, focused on segregated education because he believed that it was the concentrated expression of all the inequalities blacks endured. He desired equal access to education, but he also was concerned with the type of society blacks were trying to integrate.
He was among those who surveyed American society and saw racial inequality and the ruling powers that promoted racism to divide black workers from white workers.
Because he believed that racial violence in Depression-era America was so pervasive as to make mass direct action untenable, he emphasized the redress of grievances through the courts.
The designers of the Brown strategy developed a potent combination of gradualism in legal matters and advocacy of far-reaching change in other political arenas. Through the s and much of the s, the NAACP initiated suits that dismantled aspects of the edifice of segregated education, each building on the precedent of the previous one.
Concurrently, civil rights organizations backed efforts to radically alter the balance of power between employers and workers in the United States. They paid special attention to forming an alliance with organized labor, whose history of racial exclusion angered blacks.
In the s, the National Negro Congress brought blacks into the newly formed United Steel Workers, and the union paid attention to the particular demands of African Americans.Student participation in the Civil Rights Movement was best illustrated in the COFO-sponsored Freedom Summer of That summer, COFO organizers effectively used college students, many from outside of Mississippi, and throngs of younger activists to perform a range of civil rights activities.
The Civil Rights Movement in Mississippi, Louisiana, and Alabama. This era brought with it many of the seminal events in civil-rights history: the start of the Freedom Rides in , the University of Mississippi’s admission of its first black student, and the Birmingham riots of You may also sort these by color rating or essay.
Alternative education, Women, Freedom Summer, Civil rights movements, Mississippi Summer Project Description A history senior essay looking at Mississippi in the summer of , also known as Freedom Summer, and the projects that took place during the season.
Freedom Summer, or the Mississippi Summer Project, was a volunteer campaign in the United States launched in June to attempt to register as many African-American voters as possible in Mississippi. Blacks had been cut off from voting since the turn of the century due Location: Mississippi.
Watch video · Freedom Summer, also known as the the Mississippi Summer Project, was a voter registration drive sponsored by civil rights organizations including the Congress on .
Jury's message to feds in $ million verdict for Judi Bari and Darryl Cherney (revised 6/19/02) On June 11, , a federal jury returned a stunning verdict in favor of Judi Bari and Darryl Cherney in their landmark civil rights lawsuit against four FBI agents and three Oakland Police officers.