Comparison between smokers and non smokers essay

Ball July 10, - April 12,an ad executive, was the person with the strongest claim to having invented the smiley face -- the simple, circular yellow face with an ear-to-ear grin and no ears. Ball founded an advertising and PR agency in Worcester, Massachusetts.

Comparison between smokers and non smokers essay

What the Board expects you to know: Risk factors in the development of addiction, including genetic vulnerability, stress, personality, family influences and peers.

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Explanations for nicotine addiction: Explanations for gambling addiction: Most of these only consider addiction to drugs chemical addictionfor example: However, loss of control is subjective and raises ethical issues since it suggests a certain level of culpability and blame.

To fully understand the process of addiction we need to consider the full range of psychological, biological, social and cultural variables, as well as consider the individual.

Behavioural addictions Can behavioural addictions such as gambling be classified similarly to chemical addiction?

Clinical criteria of addiction Carnes A behaviour that is out of control Severe consequences Inability to stop despite these consequences Persistent pursuit of self-destructive or risky behaviour Desire to stop the behaviour Use of the behaviour as a coping strategy Increasing levels of the behaviour needed to get the same effect tolerance Lots of time spent both in trying to engage in the behaviour as well as recovery Severe mood changes when carrying out the behaviour Social, occupational, and recreational activities sacrificed Characteristics of an addiction Griffiths believes there to be six main characteristics to an addiction.

The Board has condensed these into the following: Physical and Psychological Dependence Physical dependence centres on the withdrawal symptoms experienced when the behavior or the drug stops. In fact it is only when these symptoms are experienced that we can be certain that physical dependence has occurred.

Generally these include anxiety, pain, irritability and shaking. Psychological dependence or salience when the behaviour becomes the most important thing to the person. From the moment the addict wakes up their thinking is dominated by their next fix.

Comparison between smokers and non smokers essay

Alcohol and nicotine addicts tend not to be so obvious in this regard, since they are able to combine their addiction with other behaviours in social settings. However, once deprived of their fix, salience becomes far more apparent.

Comparison between smokers and non smokers essay

Tolerance Usually associated with chemical addiction such as alcohol or heroin, this one can also be applied to behaviours. Basically the addict needs bigger and bigger hits to get the same effect as they did initially with smaller amounts. A gambler will need to take bigger risks and place larger bets.

There is also cross-tolerance when tolerance to one chemical such as alcohol or nicotine results in larger doses of other chemicals, including medication. The best example is alcoholics who need larger doses of anaesthetic to render them unconscious.

Withdrawal Syndrome Refers to the collection of symptoms that are experienced when the addiction is not being fed.

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Essentially these are the opposite of what the drug itself creates and usually involve pain, stress and anxiety. This collection of symptoms provides the motivation for maintenance via the process of negative reinforcement.

The addict gets a rush or buzz when engaged in the behaviour. The addict is also able to use their behaviour to bring about a mood change.

Interestingly, the same chemical or behaviour can alter mood in different directions depending on time or setting. Nicotine can stimulate in the morning or relax before sleep.Daily news briefs summarize reports about emerging uses of neuromodulation therapies for pain, movement disorder, and other health conditions.

Essay about Comparison between smokers and non-smokers. Smoke Out Smokers and non - smokers have many differences, and very few similarities.

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I am one of those people who have been subject to addiction and got into the habit of smoking even though I do realize that us smokers are looked down upon by many people. The people tested are male smokers and non-smokers between the ages of 16 to 18 (say here why u decided to only use males say because this way the experiment will be controlled and not influenced by the different body .

However non-smokers on the other hand have different means of achieving that similar sense of pleasure as compared to smokers without the same harmful effects. It is a proven fact that smokers have a greater chance of .

As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria.

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Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo. Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from ashio-midori.com A very perceptive, interesting piece as usual by Ramin Mazaheri; thank you. What’s especially heinous about China’s opium addiction en masse is that it was the result of Britain’s all-out rape and enslavement rule in India, where people were starved to death by the millions.

Really, the peasants harvesting the opium there were exploited to the utmost.

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