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Definitions[ edit ] This higher-level cognition was given the label metacognition by American developmental psychologist John H. The term metacognition literally means 'beyond cognition', and is used to indicate cognition about cognition, or more informally, thinking about thinking.
Flavell defined metacognition as knowledge about cognition and control of cognition. For example, a person is engaging in metacognition if he notices that he is having more trouble learning A than B, or if it strikes him that he should double-check C before accepting it as fact.
Andreas Demetriou 's theory one of the neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development used the term hypercognition to refer to self-monitoring, self-representation, and self-regulation processes, which are regarded as integral components of the human mind.
This concept needs to be explicitly taught along with content instruction. Metacognitive knowledge is about one's own cognitive processes and the understanding of how to regulate those processes to maximize learning.
Some types of metacognitive knowledge would include: It is notable that not all metacognition is accurate. Studies have shown that students often mistake lack of effort with understanding in evaluating themselves and their overall knowledge of a concept.
The study mentioned in Content knowledge also deals with a person's ability to evaluate the difficulty of a task related to their overall performance on the task.
Strategic knowledge conditional knowledge which is one's own capability for using strategies to learn information. Young children are not particularly good at this; it is not until students are in upper elementary school that they begin to develop an understanding of effective strategies.
It can also lead to a reduction in response time for a given situation as a result of heightened awareness, and potentially reduce the time to complete problems or tasks. In the domain of experimental psychology, an influential distinction in metacognition proposed by T.
Narens is between Monitoring—making judgments about the strength of one's memories—and Control—using those judgments to guide behavior in particular, to guide study choices.
Dunlosky, Serra, and Baker covered this distinction in a review of metamemory research that focused on how findings from this domain can be applied to other areas of applied research. It has been used, albeit off the original definition, to describe one's own knowledge that we will die.
Writers in the s involved with the grunge music scene often used the term to describe self-awareness of mortality. Metacognitive regulation is the regulation of cognition and learning experiences through a set of activities that help people control their learning.
Metacognitive experiences are those experiences that have something to do with the current, on-going cognitive endeavor. Metacognition refers to a level of thinking that involves active control over the process of thinking that is used in learning situations.
Planning the way to approach a learning task, monitoring comprehension, and evaluating the progress towards the completion of a task: Metacognition includes at least three different types of metacognitive awareness when considering metacognitive knowledge: This type of knowledge is displayed as heuristics and strategies.
This is achieved through a large variety of strategies that can be accessed more efficiently. This in turn allows the strategies to become more effective. This can include re-evaluating strategies that were used.
Similarly, maintaining motivation to see a task to completion is also a metacognitive skill. The ability to become aware of distracting stimuli — both internal and external — and sustain effort over time also involves metacognitive or executive functions.
The theory that metacognition has a critical role to play in successful learning means it is important that it be demonstrated by both students and teachers.
Students who demonstrate a wide range of metacognitive skills perform better on exams and complete work more efficiently[ citation needed ]. They are self-regulated learners who utilize the "right tool for the job" and modify learning strategies and skills based on their awareness of effectiveness.
Individuals with a high level of metacognitive knowledge and skill identify blocks to learning as early as possible and change "tools" or strategies to ensure goal attainment. Swanson found that metacognitive knowledge can compensate for IQ and lack of prior knowledge when comparing fifth and sixth grade students' problem solving.
Students with a high-metacognition were reported to have used fewer strategies, but solved problems more effectively than low-metacognition students, regardless of IQ or prior knowledge.
A broader repertoire of "tools" also assists in goal attainment. When "tools" are general, generic, and context independent, they are more likely to be useful in different types of learning situations.It is a unique initiative of the Government of India conceptualized under the umbrella of the overall National e-Governance Plan (NeGP) and the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (Jnnurm) aimed at improving operational efficiencies within Urban Local Bodies (ULBs).
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