Lindner, BA Department of Psychology, California State University, Long Beach, USA December PDF version Introduction The role of gender in the lives of young children has garnered attention, as early gender-related concepts, self-perceptions, preferences, and behaviour have the potential to affect choices, aspirations, social networks and many other future life domains. Gender is one of the first social categories children become aware of and, in early childhood, is highly important to most children. There are three main perspectives on factors influencing gender development: Unrestricted by gender stereotypes and prescribed roles, they hope that children will be exposed to a wider variety of situations and people to develop a broader array of skills.
Violence against LGBT people As homophobia and transphobia are correlated, many trans people experience homophobia and heterosexism ; this is due to people who associate trans people's gender identity with homosexualityor because trans people may also have a sexual orientation that is non-heterosexual.
According to the American Psychological Associationtransgender children are more likely than other children to experience harassment and violence in school, foster care, residential treatment centers, homeless centers and juvenile justice programs. Three-quarters report having felt unsafe.
When asked if they had ever been forced to have sex, experienced violence in their home, or been physically abused, the majority answered yes to each question. Stotzer published an article in Aggression and Violent Behavior that compiled information from numerous studies reporting violence against transgender people.
It ordinarily takes the form of a person using pronouns to describe someone that are not the ones they use,   calling a person "ma'am" or "sir" in contradiction to the person's gender identity,  using a pre-transition name for someone instead of a post-transition one  called "deadnaming"  or insisting that a person must adhere to the roles or norms assigned to their sex rather than the ones that align with their gender identity; for example, using a bathroom designated for males even though the person identifies as female.
Transgender people are often excluded from entitlements or privileges reserved for people whose gender identity they share, but whose assigned gender they do not. It is very common, for example, for transgender women to be stopped or questioned when they use public bathrooms designated for women.
In one case, Robert Eads died of ovarian cancer after being refused treatment by more than two dozen doctors. Another example of this is the case of Tyra Hunter. Hunter was involved in an automobile accident, and when rescue workers discovered she was transgender, they backed away and stopped administering treatment.
She later died in a hospital.
Some transgender people lose their jobs when they begin to transition. A study from Willamette University stated that a transgender person fired for following the recommended course of treatment rarely wins it back through federal or state statutes.
Additionally, when an employer fires or otherwise discriminates against a transgender employee, it may be a "mixed motive" case, with the employer openly citing obvious wrongdoing, job performance issues or the like such as excessive tardiness, for example while keeping silent in regards to transphobia.
Such discrimination is outlawed by specific legislation in the State of New Jersey and might be in other states as it is in the states of California, Illinois, Maine, Minnesota, New Mexico and Washington or city ordinances; additionally, it is covered by case law in some other states.
For example, Massachusetts is covered by cases such as Lie vs.
This study set out to undertake research into young children’s flexibility of reasoning about gender norms. A literature review was conducted in order to critically evaluate the literature and research surrounding the topic and through this six key areas of reasoning were identified. Children’s Judgments of Inequitable Distributions That Conform to Gender Norms. when the items were related to gender norms, children, but not adults, Future research should examine children’s reasoning about gender and distributive justice further. Specifically, it would be useful to replicate this study with different gendered items. Gender Roles in Children's Television The negative effects on children as they grow up and how we can counteract them With 2/3 of infants watching TV an average of two hours a day, television grooms them to fit into specific gender roles that are considered norms in our society. Television shows and G-rated films tend to depict more working.
Several other states and cities prohibit such discrimination in public employment. Sweden and the United Kingdom has also legislated against employment discrimination on the grounds of gender identity.
Sometimes, however, employers discriminate against transgender employees in spite of such legal protections. Management argued that this hurt Winn-Dixie's corporate image.
It results in limited career options for the transgender community leaving them economically vulnerable. A study conducted by Anneliese Singh and Vel McKleroy on transgender people of color revealed that difficulty finding a job or losing a job due to transphobia in workplace resulted in some of the transgender people living in crime-ridden neighborhoods, and getting involved in abusive relationships.
Transgender disenfranchisement in the United States Transgender people also face the denial of right of asylum or inhuman treatment in process of asylum-seeking. For example, Fernada Milan, a transgender woman from Guatemala was placed in an asylum center for males in Denmark and while there, was raped by several men.
She was in danger of deportation into Guatemala where transgender people have no rights and face possible execution, but has since been granted entry. In education[ edit ] Within the school system, many transgender teens are harassed and mistreated with reported negative effects on both victim and the school's population in general.
Most of the administrators and educators are unaware about the extent of damage that has been caused to the transgender students on account of underestimating the gravity of transphobia in their schools.
From the religious right[ edit ] Christianity[ edit ] Some of this section's listed sources may not be reliable. Please help this article by looking for better, more reliable sources. Unreliable citations may be challenged or deleted. January Learn how and when to remove this template message The Christian right in North America, including organizations such as the American Family AssociationFamily Research CouncilFocus on the FamilyNational Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality believe that transgenderism is unnatural and that transgender people are and remain their birth sex, and they oppose laws and policies intended to accommodate transgender people, such as allowing them to change their legal sex, use the washroom corresponding to the gender with which they identify, or become ordained Christian ministers.What's the Difference Between Gender and Sex?
Being a boy or a girl, for most children, is something that feels very natural. At birth, babies are assigned male or female based on physical characteristics. We know that attention to gender norms start influencing children at a very young age.
Children’s Judgments of Inequitable Distributions That Conform to Gender Norms. when the items were related to gender norms, children, but not adults, Future research should examine children’s reasoning about gender and distributive justice further. Specifically, it would be useful to replicate this study with different gendered items. Abstract reasoning involves flexible thinking, creativity, judgment, and logical problem solving. Learn more about abstract reasoning and how it differs from concrete reasoning from examples, and. American professors and psychologists, Claire Conry-Murray and Elliot Turiel, in their medical article, “Jimmy’s Baby Doll and Jenny’s Truck: Young Children’s Reasoning about Gender Norms”, expose justifications from children when assessing the flexibility or reversal of gender norms. Murray and Turiels purpose is to ask the readers.
Gender Norms & Group Dynamics: Amelia Martinie ‘ By admin In College of Arts and Sciences, “Amelia will investigate how group dynamics affect children’s reasoning about challenging group norms,” says Conry-Murray.
“If she is able to find. From a sociological perspective, social norms are informal understandings that govern the behavior of members of a society. Social psychology recognizes smaller group units, such as a team or an office, may also endorse norms separately or in addition to cultural or societal expectations.
In other words, norms are regarded as collective representations of acceptable group conduct as well as. Jimmy's Baby Doll and Jenny's Truck: Young Children's Reasoning About Gender Norms Alternatives Gender norms flexible vs.
gender norms inflexible. Children's Gender-Based Reasoning about Toys Carol Lynn Martin, Lisa Eisenbud, and Hilary Rose Arizona State University MARTIN, CAHOL LYNN; EISENBUD, LISA; and ROSE, HILARY.
Children's Gender-Based Reasoning of gender-based reasoning in cognitive theories of gender and on children's play preferences is discussed. Gender Roles in Children's Television The negative effects on children as they grow up and how we can counteract them With 2/3 of infants watching TV an average of two hours a day, television grooms them to fit into specific gender roles that are considered norms in our society.
Television shows and G-rated films tend to depict more working.