Published April 14, By Dr. Give examples of such acids and state their biological importance.
Fission and fusion, binding energy Electronic Devices Energy bands in solids qualitative ideas onlyconductors, insulators and semiconductors; Semiconductor diode — I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell, and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator.
Transistor as a switch. Vapour pressure, surface tension, viscosity.
Voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, Imperfections- Point defects, non-stoichiometric crystals; Electrical, magnetic and dielectric properties; Amorphous solids — qualitative description.
Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators, and n- and p- type semiconductors. Wave-particle duality — de Broglie relation, Uncertainty principle; Hydrogen atom: Quantum numbers and wavefunctions, atomic orbitals and their shapes s, p, and dSpin quantum number.
Brief history of the development of periodic tables Periodic law and the modern periodic table ; Types of elements: Nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than Lattice Energy and Born-Haber cycle; Covalent character of ionic bonds and polar character of covalent bond, bond parameters Molecular Structure: Bond dissociation, combustion, atomization, sublimation, dilution Second Law: Spontaneous and reversible processes; entropy; Gibbs free energy related to spontaneity and non-mechanical work; Standard free energies of formation, free energy change and chemical equilibrium.
Mole Fraction, Molarity, and Molality Solutions: Dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action Physical Equilibrium: Equilibria involving physical changes solid-liquid, liquid-gas, solid-gasSurface chemistry, Adsorption, Physical and Chemical adsorption, Langmuir Isotherm, Colloids and emulsion, classification, preparation, uses.
Oxidation-reduction reactions electron transfer concept ; Oxidation number; Balancing of redox reactions; Electrochemical cells and cell reactions; standard electrode potentials; EMF of Galvanic cells; Nernst equation; Factors affecting the electrode potential; Gibbs energy change and cell potential; Secondary cells; Fuel cells; Corrosion and its prevention.
Chemical Kinetics Aspects of Kinetics: Rate and Rate expression of a reaction; Rate constant; Order and molecularity of the reaction; Integrated rate expressions and half life for zero and first order reactions.
Factor Affecting the Rate of the Reactions: Concentration of the reactants, catalyst; size of particles, Temperature dependence of rate constant concept of collision theory elementary idea, no mathematical treatment ; Activation energy.
Surface Chemistry Adsorption — physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gasses on solids; catalysis: Hydrogen and s-block elements Hydrogen: Properties; Structure and aggregation of water molecules; Heavy water; Hydrogen peroxide: Lithium, sodium and potassium: Abundance, distribution, physical and chemical properties, isolation and uses of elements; Trends in chemical reactivity of elements of a group; electronic configuration, oxidation states; anomalous properties of first element of each group.
Reaction of aluminum with acids and alkalis; Group 14 elements: Silica, silicates, silicone, silicon tetrachloride, Zeolites, and their uses Group 15 elements: Dinitrogen; Preparation, reactivity and uses of nitrogen; Industrial and biological nitrogen fixation; Compound of nitrogen; Ammonia: Group 17 and group 18 elements: Lanthanoids and actinoids; Oxidation states and chemical reactivity of lanthanoids compounds; Lanthanide contraction and its consequences, Comparison of actinoids and lanthanoids.
Valence-bond approach, Crystal field theory qualitative ; Isomerism including stereoisomerisms. Inductive, resonance effects, and hyperconjugation; free radicals; carbocations, carbanion, nucleophile and electrophile; types of organic reactions, free redical halogenations.
Structural isomerism and general properties and chemical reactions, free redical helogenation, combustion and pyrolysis. General methods of preparation and reactions, physical properties, electrophilic and free radical additions, acidic character of alkynes and 1,2 and 1,4 addition to dienes.
Sources; Properties; Isomerism; Resonance delocalization; polynuclear hydrocarbons; IUPAC nomenclature ; mechanism of electrophilic substitution reaction, directive influence and effect of substituents on reactivity; carcinogenicity and toxicity. Physical properties, nomenclature, optical rotation, chemical reactions and mechanism of substitution reaction.
Uses and environmental effects; di, tri, tetrachloromethanes, iodoform, freon and DDT. BiologicalIndustrial and Environmental chemistry The Cell: Concept of cell and energy cycle. Classification; Monosaccharides; Structures of pentoses and hexoses; Anomeric carbon; Mutarotation; Simple chemical reactions of glucose, Disaccharides: Amino acids; Peptide bond; Polypeptides; Primary structure of proteins; Simple idea of secondarytertiary and quarternary structures of proteins; Denaturation of proteins and enzymes.
Classification, structure, functions in biosystems; Hormones Polymers: Classification of polymers; General methods of polymerization; Molecular mass of polymers; Biopolymers and biodegradable polymers; methods of polymerization free radical, cationic and anionic addition polymerizations ; Copolymerization: Natural rubber; Vulcanization of rubber; Synthetic rubbers.
Chemicals in medicine, health-care and food:Pesticides are defined as substances or mixtures of substances intended for controlling, preventing, destroying, repelling, or attracting any biological organism deemed to be a pest.
Insecticides, herbicides, defoliants, desiccants, fungicides, nematicides, avicides, and rodenticides are some of the many kinds of pesticides.. Classification of Pesticides. Acid in the human stomach When people refer to acid they usually see it as a corrosive liquid that can dissolve metals or change the color of a substance.
So they think of acid as a dangerous matter for the body and believe it can easily dissolve your skin.
1 Base Extraction of Benzoic Acid from Acetanilide Recrystallization of Products Davis Bhagat October 22, Methods and Background The purpose of this lab is to purify a mixture of Benzoic Acid (Figure ) and Acetanilide (Figure ).The Benzoic Acid and Acetanilide mixture is in a ratio and the purification process occurs in two main steps%(22).
Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 cas classification concentration ec index_no name nota_a nota_n risk_safety Absorption oils, bicyclo arom.
and heterocyclic hydrocarbon fraction;. Q a) – What are sugar acids? Give examples of such acids and state their biological importance. Answer- Sugar acids are formed by the oxidation of – 1) Aldehyde group (C1) to form Aldonic acid, or 2) Primary Alcoholic group (C5) in an aldohexose to form uronic acid or.
If an unknown is an aldehyde, the orange color of the Jones reagent will turn green due to oxidation of an aldehyde to a carboxylic acid. If the unknown is a ketone, there will be no color change, since ketones cannot be further oxidized.