Neither has the world known another Cleopatra. There are actually several pharaohs who have adapted the name, but no one came close to Cleopatra VII.
She was both well-educated and natively clever, and she had a dramatic flair that made her intoxicating to powerful men. Her wealth guaranteed the attention of Rome, but it was her own choices and skills that shaped the course that attention took.
In the end, she proved far more useful to Rome than she did to Egypt. Although she was to be Queen of Egypt, Cleopatra was a Greek, both by ancestry and culture.
She came from a long line of Hellenistic rulers, going back to the general Ptolemy who took Egypt as his inheritance after the death of Alexander the Great. Unlike her forebears, she took the trouble to learn the language and customs of her country, and under better circumstances, she might have been a great Pharaoh.
Fate did not give her the chance. Taking a cue from Egyptian mythology and intermittent royal practice, the Ptolemies made a habit of incestuous marriages; unlike Egyptian norms, such marriages also served as co-regencies.
In the past, this had sometimes led to strong rule, but in later generations, any such strength was sapped by a pattern of family intrigues. There was an additional complication. At the death of Ptolemy Auletes, the Egyptian succession was already under foreign influence: During his time in Rome, other family members assumed the throne; after some dithering, Rome sent troops to defeat the latest upstart, and replace Ptolemy XII upon his throne.
Rome was not merely a disinterested observer when these quarrelsome siblings took the throne. Egypt was a wealthy country, despite the mismanagement that depleted its treasury, and wealth was always handy to a militaristic state bent upon further expansion.
Finally, Rome had a civil war of its own, the one between Julius Caesar and Gnaeus Pompey, and both factions desired access to the wealth of Egypt. Both of the Egyptian rulers decided to back the same side: Caesar did his part for Cleopatra.
Cleopatra was secure as the effective ruler of Egypt, although she technically still needed to share power with a younger sibling. For her part, Cleopatra gave Caesar his only son, Ptolemy Kaisarion, and waited patiently when Caesar went off to dispense with the last remnants of his foes in North Africa.
Cleopatra joined Caesar when he returned to Rome for his Triumph. Caesar was assassinated in 44 B. When that war was resolved, however, and Octavian and Antony set up spheres of influence within the Roman world, Cleopatra presented herself to Antony in a grand feat of showmanship, beginning a liaison that would dominate the rest of their lives.
Great as he was, Antony was decidedly a lesser man than Julius Caesar. If Caesar and Cleopatra were equals, Antony and Cleopatra were mismatched. If that were successful, the eastern state would necessarily be a Hellenistic one, and Egypt would be a major partner in this resurgent Greek world.
As for Antony, he seems truly to have been smitten by his paramour, but beyond the personal attractions, he was also seduced by the wealth of Egypt, wealth sufficient to support victory after victory in his own ambitions.
To his peril, Antony had lost sight of Roman popular opinion. Adding insult to injury, he had children by her and named them his heirs. Even so, Octavian had to work hard in the arena of propaganda to garner enough support to make war on Antony.
Caesar remained in Egypt with Cleopatra for a time, and around 47 B.C. she gave birth to a son, Ptolemy Caesar. He was believed to be Caesar’s child, and was known by the Egyptian people as. Cleopatra: Cleopatra | Egyptian queen, famous in history and drama as the lover of Julius Caesar and the wife of Mark Antony. When Caesar was murdered in the Senate Mark Antony took steps to protect Cleopatra, but fearing the return of Octavian (who was Caesar's named heir and therefore a threat to her son Caesarion) she wisely chose to return to Egypt.
In the end, Cleopatra made that possible. The specter of an oriental despot imposing her style of governance upon Roman citizens through her intoxicating effect on Antony rendered both of them dangerous enough to justify another round of civil war to remove them.
Part of this force was a massive, and expensive, naval build-up that seemed like the match of anything that Octavian could send against him. In all of these things, they were mistaken.
Octavian was far quicker in gathering his forces than Antony, and in 31 B. Octavian also had a powerful naval force, comprised of ships much smaller than the pride of the Egyptian fleet, but also more agile and in greater numbers. The two sides spent the summer in search of an advantageous position and in avoidance of direct contact, but then, on a single day in September, the fleet that Antony and Cleopatra had so meticulously created was crushed decisively.
Antony killed himself in response, and shortly thereafter, Cleopatra followed suit, hoping to rob Octavian of the pleasure of parading her about Rome in his Triumph.
For his part, Octavian was probably relieved. It was an important point for Octavian. Having won the war, he wished to push through his program for the reconstitution of the Roman state, and that meant convincing a number of very stubborn minds.
Only in the waning years of his reign as Emperor Augustus did the memories of Cleopatra begin to fade, and the official story increasingly emphasized the need to get rid of Antony for his own excesses.
Taken as a whole, Cleopatra did little for her own country.However, Cleopatra and Ptolemy’s struggle for power coincided with the Roman generals Pompey and Caesar’s own rivalry and, after his defeat at the battle of Pharsalus, Pompey fled to Egypt hoping to seek sanctuary.
Queen Cleopatra of Egypt and How She Affected the Roman Empire. Cleopatra Thea Philopator, or Cleopatra VII, was a remarkable and talented ruler who inherited a weak position and never managed to improve it significantly. Although it is impossible to quantify the effect that Cleopatra had on those who plotted against Caesar, it is safe to.
Julius Caesar, on the other hand, is a son to the humble family of Aurelia and to Gaius Julius Caesar in Rome. Their family is not wealthy nor is it prominent when he was born in or BCE. By the age 18, he already had two wives, both from prominent families, Cossutia and Cornelia, respectively.
Free Essay: Isra Mahmood BA English Hons II – B Paper IV Project The Effects of the Affair of Caesar and Cleopatra on Calpurnia. Caesar remained in Egypt with Cleopatra for a time, and around 47 B.C. she gave birth to a son, Ptolemy Caesar.
He was believed to be Caesar’s child, and was known by the Egyptian people as. Caesar’s Palace The following year, Caesar returned home and, in 46 BC, was named dictator of Rome.
Cleopatra followed, bringing along her young son Ptolemy XV Caesar, also called Caesarion.