Creative expression develops marketing campaigns that catch the eye and capture the imagination, but behind every marketing strategy are theories grounded solidly in psychology, economics, and studies in human behavior. The scientific insights help marketers design campaigns that speak to the fundamental concerns and desires of their audience, greatly deepening the impact of the marketing materials. At the heart of the scientific study of marketing are key insights about consumer behavior, or why consumers buy and act the way they do.
History of marketing thought In the s and 50s, marketing was dominated by the so-called classical schools of thought which were highly descriptive and relied heavily on case study approaches with only occasional use of interview methods.
At the end of the s, two important reports criticised marketing for its lack of methodological rigor, especially the failure to adopt mathematically-oriented behavioural science research methods.
From the s, marketing began to shift is reliance away from economics and towards other disciplines, notably the behavioural sciences, including sociology, anthropology and clinical psychology.
This resulted in a new emphasis on the customer as a unit of analysis. As a result, new substantive knowledge was added to the marketing discipline - including such ideas as opinion leadership, reference groups and brand loyalty.
Market segmentationespecially demographic segmentation based on socioeconomic status SES index and household life-cycle, also became fashionable. With the addition of consumer behaviour, the marketing discipline exhibited increasing scientific sophistication with respect to theory development and testing procedures.
By the s, marketing began to adopt techniques used by motivation researchers including depth interviews, projective techniques, thematic apperception tests and a range of qualitative and quantitative research methods. Consumer behaviour is concerned with: As a field of study, consumer behaviour is an applied social science.
Consumer behaviour analysis is the "use of behaviour principles, usually gained experimentally, to interpret human economic consumption.
Understanding purchasing and consumption behaviour is a key challenge for marketers. Consumer behaviour, in its broadest sense, is concerned with understanding both how purchase decisions are made and how products or services are consumed or experienced. Consumers are active decision-makers.
They decide what to purchase, often based on their disposable income or budget. They may change their preferences related to their budget and a range of other factors. Some purchase decisions involve long, detailed processes that include extensive information search to select between competing alternatives.
Some purchase decisions are made by groups such as families, households or businesses while others are made by individuals. When a purchase decision is made by a small group, such as a household, different members of the group may become involved at different stages of the decision process and may perform different roles.
For example, one person may suggest the purchase category, another may search for product-related information while yet another may physically go to the store, buy the product and transport it home.
It is customary to think about the types of decision roles; such as: In a family unit, the adult female often makes brand choices on behalf of the entire household, while children can be important influencers The Initiator the person who proposes a brand or product for consideration something in return ; The Influencer someone who recommends a given brand; The Decider the person who makes the ultimate purchase decision; The Purchaser the one who orders or physically buys it; The User the person who uses or consumes the product.
The importance of children as influencers in a wide range of purchase contexts should never be underestimated and the phenomenon is known as pester power. The decision model situates the black box in a broader environment which shows the interaction of external and internal stimuli e.
The decision model assumes that purchase decisions do not occur in a vacuum. The elements of the model include: In practice some purchase decisions, such as those made routinely or habitually, are not driven by a strong sense of problem-solving.
High involvement products are those that carry higher levels of risk and are often expensive, infrequent purchases.
The strength of the need drives the entire decision process. Information search describes the phase where consumers scan both their internal memory and external sources for information about products or brands that will potentially satisfy their need. The aim of the information search is to identify a list of options that represent realistic purchase options.
Throughout the entire process, the consumer engages in a series of mental evaluations of alternatives, searching for the best value. Towards the end of the evaluation stage, consumers form a purchase intention, which may or may not translate into an actual product purchase. The stages of the decision process normally occur in a fixed sequence.Customer sat- isfaction/ dissatisfaction is the cognitive judgement of a customer resulting out of an interaction between the cus- tomer's personality and the company's marketing practices from.
The object to study the consumer behaviour and decision making is to examine the role of determinates that influence the final decision of consumer.
The justifications and explanation was based on available consumer decision making theories, buying behaviour model and deep study of selected determinant learning. Keywords: consumer behaviour theory marketing, consumer decision The idea of consumer buying behavior is not new, it has been discovered ages before.
The current marketing strategies focuses on consumers buying behaviour. Buyer behaviour What is buyer behaviour? The definition is “ buyer behaviour is the define as activities people undertake when obtaining, consuming, and disposing of .
ashio-midori.com: A Theory of Buyer Behavior John A.
Howard, Jagdish A THEORY N. Sheth OF BUYER BEHAVIOR. Consumer Behavior Theory.
|Theories of Consumer Decision Making||History of marketing thought In the s and 50s, marketing was dominated by the so-called classical schools of thought which were highly descriptive and relied heavily on case study approaches with only occasional use of interview methods.|
Theories of consumer behavior are a natural extension of human behavior theories. While no single theory is unifying, each one provides a unique piece of the puzzle in understanding the psychological processes of people and their patterns of consumption.
Four theories stand out as influential for marketers.