Clarion, clarin and the Italian clarino are all derived from the medieval term claro which referred to an early form of trumpet. According to Johann Gottfried Waltherwriting inthe reason for the name is that "it sounded from far off not unlike a trumpet". The English form clarinet is found as early asand the now-archaic clarionet appears from until the early years of the 20th century.
Clarion, clarin and the Italian clarino are all derived from the medieval term claro which referred to an early form of trumpet. According to Johann Gottfried Waltherwriting inthe reason for the name is that "it sounded from far off not unlike a trumpet".
The English form clarinet is found as early asand the now-archaic clarionet appears from until the early years of the 20th century. The tone quality can vary greatly with the clarinetist, music, instrument, mouthpiece, and reed.
The differences in instruments and geographical isolation of clarinetists led to the development from the last part of the 18th century onwards of several different schools of playing. The latter was centered on the clarinetists of the Conservatoire de Paris.
The modern clarinetist has a diverse palette of "acceptable" tone qualities to choose from. The lowest concert pitch depends on the transposition of the instrument in question.
Modern professional-quality bass clarinets generally have additional keywork to written C3.
G6 is usually the highest note clarinetists encounter in classical repertoire. The middle register is known as the clarion register sometimes in the U. The top or altissimo register consists of the notes above the written C two octaves above middle C C6.
The chalumeau register is rich and dark. The clarion register is brighter and sweet, like a trumpet clarion heard from afar. The altissimo register can be piercing and sometimes shrill.
Acoustics[ edit ] Sound wave propagation in the soprano clarinet Sound is a wave that propagates through the air as a result of a local variation in air pressure.
The production of sound by a clarinet follows these steps: Air is blown past the reed and down the instrument. In the same way a flag flaps in the breeze, the air rushing past the reed causes it to vibrate. As air pressure from the mouth increases, the amount the reed vibrates increases until the reed hits the mouthpiece.
Each time the reed opens, a puff of air goes through the gap, after which the reed swings shut again. This is either at the closest open hole or at the end of the tube see diagram: This rarefaction wave travels back up the tube image 2.
The rarefaction is reflected off the sloping end wall of the clarinet mouthpiece. The opening between the reed and the mouthpiece makes very little difference to the reflection of the rarefaction wave.
This is because the opening is very small compared to the size of the tube, so almost the entire wave is reflected back down the tube even if the reed is completely open at the time the wave hits image 3.
When the rarefication wave reaches the other open end of the tube, air rushes in to fill the slight vacuum. The cycle repeats at a frequency relative to how long it takes a wave to travel to the first open hole and back twice i.
This represents a repeat of the cycle times per second. Harmonics are caused by factors including the imperfect wobbling and shaking of the reed, the reed sealing the mouthpiece opening for part of the wave cycle which creates a flattened section of the sound waveand imperfections bumps and holes in the bore.
A wide variety of compression waves are created, but only some primarily the odd harmonics are reinforced.
These extra waves are what gives the clarinet its characteristic tone. The bell at the bottom of the clarinet flares out to improve the tone and tuning of the lowest notes.
Most modern clarinets have "undercut" tone holes that improve intonation and sound. Undercutting means chamfering the bottom edge of tone holes inside the bore.NNDB has added thousands of bibliographies for people, organizations, schools, and general topics, listing more than 50, books and , other kinds of references.
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